The inability of an adult male of the organism at fertilization, called infertility. Manifests the problem is usually in the course of multiple attempts of unsuccessful design of the pair. According to the statistics, among the Russian families in 45% of cases, put the infertility in men as the main cause of the inability to conceive a child.
The causes of male infertility
This is the mentality that the first goes to the doctor is a woman. And when, after a thorough investigation it is discovered that she is in good health, reproduction, the system is ready to conceive, facing the distrust of the partner.
For the success of fertilization and the development of the embryo requires the following conditions:
- complete spermatogenesis good sperm;
- maturation of sperm;
- physiologically normal ejaculation;
- the activity of sperm outside genital male until the moment of the fusion of the egg and full fertilization.
Sterility in men can wear it as a nature innate and acquired. Innate inability of the fertilization develops as a result of the various pathologies in the development of the testicles (cryptorchidism, hypogonadism, etc). There are abnormalities in the development of the urethra. The most frequently diagnosed form of hypospadias, pyloric stenosis. When these abnormalities of development of the sperm does not enter the vagina.
Of the disease, leading to infertility in men
Causes of acquired of male infertility are many. Most often, this condition is due to a deferral of the disease. Chronic inflammatory change in normal spermatogenesis, lead to the formation of abnormal sperm unable to fertilize. Cause an inability to conceive following pathology:
- mumps (mumps);
- sexually transmitted diseases;
- the inflammatory processes;
- development abnormalities of the reproductive system (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, varicocele, hypogonadism);
- diabetes mellitus;
- injuries of the reproductive organs, a surgical procedure;
- the hormonal disorders;
- the genetic factor.
The infertility in men, causes which, generally, are complex, moved more often.
The factors contributing to the development of pathology
In addition to the diseases involving the phenomena of inflammation, circulatory disorders, hormonal reconstructions trs difficult, there are contributing factors. Their presence aggravates the action of the main reasons or is amorage to develop disorders in the reproductive system of the body.
Factors of infertility in men is very varied:
- the working harmful production factors (ionizing radiation, vibration, chemicals, electromagnetic waves);
- the lack of exercise, a sedentary job;
- addictions (alcoholism, smoking);
- professional bike training;
- covering the cloth;
- the superheat and sub-cooling of the pelvic region;
- psycho-emotional overload, stress.
Not so scary at first sight, all these factors have a negative impact on the indicators of sperm. Its the qualitative and quantitative features are on the decline.
Types of male infertility and their characteristics
By the nature of the sterility can be of three types:
- A secretory form of infertility is expressed in the inability of the sexual glands in the development of a sufficient quantity of the sperm active. Most often it is related to the violation of the blood supply to tissues of testicles. When the male cells have defects, their content in the seminal fluid has greatly reduced.
- Self-sterility. The violation of the fertile ability of men in this case – complex for the diagnosis and treatment. The factors of sterility of the self-reinforcing mechanism, are the more often a trauma, a surgical intervention. Antisperm antibodies ' perceptions of their own reproductive cells as a foreign antibody. They reduce the sperm motility, may have a negative impact on the process of spermatogenesis. The sperm can not penetrate into the liquid cervical.
- Excretory infertility. The cause of the excretory violations are most often deferred, inflammatory diseases, malformations of the urethra and sex glands. Cause sterility of the obstruction of the vas deferens, as well as aspermatism. In this form vary of the indicators of sperm quality: a decrease of the concentration of sperm, their activity, are the reproductive cells.
If the design in the autoimmune infertility that actually happened, the antibodies disrupt the crushing, the zygote, to hamper the development of the embryo, may be the cause of the premature interruption of pregnancy.
The signs and symptoms of male infertility
The symptoms of infertility in men are the most often fuzzy, and indirect. Constitution, sexual, sexual activity reflects low fertility. Usually sterile men are very sexually active, do not know the signs of sexual impotence, impotence. The man most often he himself is not aware of his problem. No obvious symptoms of the illness physical in violation of the fertile capacities is not observed.
In 90% of cases, male infertility almost asymptomatic. For him, the characteristic of an essential feature: the absence of fertilization in a sexual life regular for a year without birth control on the bottom of the reproductive capacity of the partner.
|Obvious signs of male infertility||The indirect signs of reproductive disorders|
Autoimmune and genetic abnormalities that have no clinical signs.
A variety of causes of infertility in men, signs of illness, do not have explicit manifestations result with respect to the timeliness of processing of care of a specialist. This insidious pathology discover usually only after years of unsuccessful attempts for men to get the offspring.
The diagnosis of male infertility
The diagnosis of infertility is established after a thorough investigation of the body of men. Doctor careful collection of medical history, the analysis of the factors that may cause a disturbance of the fertile of the function. Some of the pathology of development (hyposadias, cryptorchidism) are diagnosed in a new-born age.
The varicocele is detected during the medical examination in the case of a treatment of men with complaints of pain during sex. During the conduct of the inspection, there are also of hypogonadism.
The most informative methods of research:
- the qualitative and quantitative indicators in the seminal fluid;
- complete analysis of blood and urine;
- and medical research;
- analyses on the sexually transmitted diseases;
- the search for the secret of the prostate;
- the analysis of the DNA.
In most cases, the decryption of the sperm analysis gives a complete picture of the fertile capacity in men. This instructive to view microscopic and morphological analysis allows to judge the motility of the spermatozoa, their number. Rvle sperm defects in the structure of the male genitalia cells, the viscosity of the semen, acidity, etc
The ultrasound is used to exclude diseases and pathologies of the prostate and testis. For the diagnosis of inflammatory disease, apply microscopic techniques to the study of biological fluids.
Hormonal Tests are designed to determine the concentration in the blood of testosterone, estrogen and other hormones. Of their results is evaluated hormones male body, which is important in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.
In case of suspicion of obstruction of the tubules, the doctor will prescribe you the x-ray with contrast material. Men suffering from varicocele can be assigned to a transcranial doppler.
If necessary, will be assigned to the advanced techniques of research, consultation with an endocrinologist, andrologist, sexologist.
It is to be noted that the men quite difficult to decide on the passage of diagnosis due to the fact that most of the procedures that they perceive as derogatory, and the other part is pretty painful. It is extremely important to maintain the spouse together to overcome difficulties on the path of pregnancy.
The prevention of male infertility
The etiology of the occurrence of violations of the fertile capacity of the male body are diversified. Therefore, the prevention of infertility is complex. Take care of the health of the people is necessary to the child. Are required to regular visits to a surgeon and urologist at puberty.
A healthy lifestyle is one of the major activities of prevention of infertility. Moderate sport, exercise – pledge to improve the functions of the reproductive system. Importantly, a refusal of the men to smoking and drinking alcohol. Common side overheating (hot tubs, saunas) and the cooling of the body.
The diet, rich in proteins, nutrients, vitamins and trace-elements of a good prevention is not only to infertility, but also good immunity. The food should be healthy, natural. Are excluded from the diet sharp, smoked, stir-fried dishes. The basis of the diet should be fish, meat, vegetables and fruit. Plays a major role in protecting male of the body against stress and emotional factors. Regular a full sexual life with the constant partner is also beneficial on the fertile ability of men.
Infertility in men – the problem is not only medical, but also social. The breach fertile capacity of the half leads to emotional problems in the family, reduces the quality of social life. It is therefore necessary as early as possible consult a doctor, begin to lead a healthy life, to eliminate factors that contribute to the reproductive development of erectile dysfunction in men.